(The Syllabus was approved by the Academic Council in its meeting held on 24-10-2001)
Those who have obtained B.A. degree from the Universities of Pakistan or abroad are eligible for admission or examination in M.A. International Relations. The pre-requisite subjects are Political Science, History and Economics.
M.A. (PREVIOUS) EXAMINATION Marks
Paper - I Concepts and Principles of International Relations 100
Paper - II International Organization 100
Paper - III International Law 100
Paper - IV Foreign Policy Analysis 100
Paper - V International Relations Since 1945 100
Paper - VI Functional English 50
M.A. ( FINAL ) EXAMINATION
Note : The examination will consist of Six Papers:
Paper - VII Pakistan’s Foreign Policy 100
Paper - VIII The Politics of International Economic Relations 100
Paper - IX Strategic Studies 100
Paper - X Option-(A) West Asia, since 1919 and the Arab World 100
Option-(B) Government and Politics of South Asia with 100
Reference to India.
Paper - XI
Paper - (A) ESSAY ( for Private candidates ) 100
( for Regular Students )
(B) (I) THESIS WRITING = 70 (ii) RESEARCH Presentation = 30
TOTAL MARKS = 1150
PAPER - I CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF 100 marks
Contents: 1. Origin, Development and Scope of International Relations.
2. Approaches to the study of International Relations.
3. Evaluation of the State- system.
4. Nationalism and Sovereignty.
5. Imperialism, Colonialism & NEO = Colonialism.
6. National Power
7. Balance of Power.
8. Regionalism and Internationalism.
9. Modes of International Relations: Friendship and Cooperation, Diplomacy, Alliances, Propaganda and Subversion.
10. Economic Instruments of State Policy.
11. War: Causes and Consequences.
12. The future of Mankind and the changing principles of International Relations.
1. Brown, Seymon, International Relations in a Changing Global System.
Boulder; West vies, 1992.
2. Cox, Robert, Approaches to the World Order. Cambridge University
3. Deutsch, K.W., The Analysis of International Relations.
N.Y. Prentice Hall, 1978.
4. Farns Morth David, International Relations: An Introduction.
Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1987.
5. Frankel, Joseph. International Politics: Conflict and Harmony.
London: Penguin, 1969.
6. Gilpin, R., War and Change in International Politics,
Cambridge University Press, 1984.
7. Hass Ernst B., & Dynamics of International Relations.
Whiting, Allen S, N.Y. Mc. Graw Hill, 1975.
8. Lopez, George A. & International Relations: Contemporary Theory &
Stohl, Michael S., Practices: Washington D.C. Congressional Quarterly, 1989.
9. And Books prescribed for B.A. (Part-I) Paper.
PAPER - II INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION 100 marks
1. The evolution of Multilateral Conference Diplomacy and International Institutions – Hague Conferences to the League of Nations.
2. League of Nations – Origin, Structure and Nature. Functioning and Causes of the Failure of the League.
3. The UNO – Origin Aims and Objectives.
4. The Organizational Structural of the UN- Its Principle Bodies and the Functions. The Specialized Agencies and their Function within the UN System.
5. Collective Security Preventive Diplomacy, Peace-keeping and peace-making role of the UN.
6. The Role of UN in Post-Cold War era. UN Secretary General’s Report “Agenda for Peace”. The Restructuring of the United Nations, the Expansion of Security Council, New Role of the General Assembly and of the Secretary General.
7. The Functions of the UN Secretariat: Its Recruitment Policy and the Financial Problems.
8. Arms Control and Disarmament under the UN.
9. The Role of Non-Government Organization (NGOs) in the UN and the International System (Population, Women, Environment).
10. Inter-Government Organizations (other than the UN) OAU, NAFIA, ASEAN, EU, APEC, etc.
1. Archer, C. International Organizations, London: Allen and Unwin, 1983.
2. Armstrong, D. The Rise of International Organizations,
London: McMillan, 1982.
3. Bennett, A.L International Organizations: Principles and Eaglewood Cliffs,
N.J. Prentice-Hall, 1977.
4. Cheever, Danial Organizing for Peace: International Organizations in World
S, & Jr.Haviland, Affairs. London: Skven & Son. 1957.
5. Goodspeed, The Nature and the Function of International Organization.
Stephen S., N.Y. 1980.
6. Verrier, A. International Peace – Keeping: London, Penguin, 1981.
PAPER - III INTERNATIONAL LAW 100 marks
1. Nature, Origins and Basis of International Law: Nature and Origins to basis of International Law.
2. Sources of International Law: Treaties, decisions of arbitral of judicial tribunals, juristic works.
3. Recognition of States and Governments: Recognition in general: recognition demure and de facto, legal effects of recognition, recognition of insurgency and belligerency.
4. Succession of States and Governments, Basic doctrinal positions, scope of the expression “succession of states”. Circumstances given rise to succession, different treatment of the various situations in positive law, depending on the cause and object of “succession”.
5. Extradition and Asylum: Extraditablepersons, extradition crimes, territorial asylum, extra-territorial asylum.
6. Immunity Sovereign, Diplomatic and Consular, 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, Scope of Diplomatic Immunities, 1963, Vienna Convention of Consulate Relations, Scope of Consular Immunities, state immunity, scope of state immunity.
7. Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources, Principle of permanent sovereignty as a general normative statement: control.
8. International rivers: Major theories regarding water rights of riparian states: legal principles governing the use and explosion of International Rivers.
9. Transit passage, archipelagic states, and exclusive economic zone: limits of continental shelf, right of access to and from the sea of land-locked states: International sea-bed areas; settlement of dispute. Marine environmental issues.
10. Law of Treaties: Main focus would be on the 1969 Vienna Convention on the law of Treaties with brief treatment of areas such as conclusion and entry into force, reservations, interpretation, invalidity (branch of international law: error, fraud, coercion, registration and publication, just congens) and termination and suspension of operation (branch, supervening impossibility of performance, Rebus Sic stantibus).
11. Human Rights: Background Covenant on Civil political rights, covenant on economic, social and cultural rights, implementation mechanism, 1993. Vienna Conference on Human Rights.
12. State Responsibility: Internationally wrongful act: question of fault, absolute liability and the theory of risk, circumstances precluding wrongfulness, international crimes and international dialects, attribution of a wrongful act to a state as a legal person, forms of reparation for the breach of an international obligation.
13. Environmental Protection: Environment, heritage of all the peoples of the world, a factor for peace, a factor for development combating pollution, sectoral regulation, global regulation of nature and its resources, 1992, Rio Convention.
14. Air and Space Law: Air, freedom of the air, aircraft, ICAAC, status of outer space moon and other celestial bodies, boundary with airspace, space communications, registration of space for objects, liability for damage caused by space objects, use of outer space for peaceful purposes.
15. Use of Force: Brief history of the use of force: UN Charter as the basis of International peace, recent developments in the use of force.
16. Peoples and National Liberation Movements: Concept of people decolonization, peaceful co-existence and the rights of peoples conditions for recognition of national liberation movements, legal regime relating to the status of national liberation movements.
17. International Terrorism: General background, three hijacking conventions.
18. Law of International Armed Conflict: Definition, rationale; identification of international armed conflicts, fundamental principles of humanitarian law; combatants and non-combatants weapon limitations and other limits, civilians and armed conflict, humanitarian limits on occupying forces, prisoners of war, enforcement of humanitarian Law.
19. Pacific Settlement of Disputes: Conciliation, mediation, good offices, commissions of inquiry, arbitration, adjudication.
20. Future Prospects of International Law.
1. Akehurest, Michael, A Modern Introduction to International Law.
3rd Ed London: Allen & Unwicy 1978.
2. Briaerly, J.L., The Law of Nations in An International to the
International Law of Peace. (6th ed) N.Y. Oxford University Press, 1963.
3. Brownlie, Lan, Principles of Public International Law.
(4th Ed). Oxford: Clerenden Press, 1990.
4. Brownlie, Lan, Basic Documents in International Law. (2nd Ed)
Oxford University Press, 1972.
5. Bruggs, Heerbert W., The Law of Nations ,Cases, Documents and Notes:
London Stevens, 1953.
6. Caster B.E., & Teimble, International Law: Selected Documents.
P R., Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1991.
7. Oppenhein, L., International Law, A Treatise. (Vol- I & II).
London: Longman, 1901-1905
8. Ort B.H., Public International Law in the Modern World.
London: Pitman, 1987.
9. Staske, J.G., An Introduction to International Law.
London: Dy Herwathes, 1989.
PAPER - IV FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS 100 marks
Contents: 1. Importance of Foreign Policy in International Relations
2. Approaches to the Foreign Policy Making.
3. Goals and Objectives of Foreign Policy.
4. Determinants of Foreign Policy.
5. Input of Foreign Policy Making:
i) Role of Head of Governments.
ii) Foreign Minister
iii) Foreign Office
vi) Public Opinion
6. External Factors of the Foreign Policy Making (Transitional Factors)
7. (i) Foreign Policy making in a Democratic State: USA
(ii) Foreign Policy making in a Socialist State: P.R.C
8. New trends in the foreign policy making.
1. Frankel, Joseph, the Making of Foreign Policy
London: Oxford University Press, 1977.
2. Deutsch, K.W., the Analysis of International Relations.
N.Y. Prentice Hall, 1978.
3. Holsti, K.J., International Politics: A Framework for Analysis.
Pall Mall, 1968.
4. Henkin, L., How Nations Behave: Law and Foreign Policy.
London: Pall Mall, 1968.
5. Synder R.C., Ed al., Foreign Policy Decision Making.
6. Roseau, James & International Politics and Foreign Policy
James N, (Ed). London, Franchise Printer, 1980.
PAPER - V INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS SINCE 1945 100 marks
Contents: I. East-West Relations:
1. Impact of World War-II on the structure of World Politics.
2. Emergence of Super Powers: Bi-polarity, East-west confrontation, Cold War.
3. Sino-Soviet Split, Sino-American Rapprochement.
4. Détente’ East-West cooperation, peaceful co-existence.
II. Post- Cold War Era- New World Order:
1. United Nation in the Unipolar world.
2. The Disintegration of the Soviet Union.
3. East Europe after the Cold War.
4. Russia in the Post-Soviet setting.
5. Emerging regionalism, Economic Organization EU, ECO, ASEAN, NAFTA, LAFTA & APEC.
III. New Roles of International Power and Influence:
1. Rise of China as a Major Power.
2. Emergence of Japan and Germany as Economic Powers.
3. Emergence of United Europe.
4. Rise of the Asia-Pacific region.
IV. The Third World:
2. Non Aligned Movement in the New World Order.
3. Muslim World and the OIC.
4. North-South Dialogue.
5. Selected regional and International Issues:
The Gulf War, The Bosnian Tragedy, the Kashmir Dispute, the Islamic Revivalism and the West, the Muslim World and New World Order.
V. Politics of International Resources (Food, Energy, Minerals etc), Environment, Human Rights, Terrorism, Non-Proliferation, Earth Matters and Weapons of Mass Destruction.
1. Calvocressi Peter, World Politics Since 1945 (6th ed) London: Longman,
2. Claude, Inis L, Jr, Power and International Relations. N.Y. Random House,
3. Dunbadin, J.P.D., International Relations Since 1945. London
4. Gabriel, Almoud & G, Comprehensive Politics Today A World View:
Gingham Kennedy, London, Scott, Foreman and Co., 1994.
5. Kegley, Charles, W, World Politics: Trends and Transformations:
Jr, & Woltkopf, N.Y. McMillan, 1993
6. Tassilte, John & A Global Agenda: N.Y. United Press of America.
Weolfson, susan (ed).
PAPER - VII FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN 100 marks
1. Determinants of Pakistan Foreign Policy.
2. Elements and objectives to Pakistan’s Foreign Policy.
3. Decision-Making Process.
4. Pakistan :
5. Pakistan and South Asia.
6. Pakistan and the Muslim World (including its various organizations)
7. Pak – US Relation
8. Pak – Russia Relations
9. Pakistan’s relations with Japan and South East Asia
10. Pakistan and the Third World
11. Pakistan and the Western World
12. Pakistan and the United Nations
13. Latest developments in Pakistan Foreign Policy.
1. Arif, K., Pakistan’s Foreign Policy: Indian Perspective.
Lahore: Vanguard, 1984
2. Barnds, W.J., India, Pakistan and the Great Powers. London Press, 1977.
3. Bhutto, Z.A., The Myth of Independence: Karachi, Oxford University Press
4. Bhutto, Z.A., TheThirdWorld: New Directions. London: Quartet BooksLtd, 1977.
5. Burke, S.M., & Pakistan Foreign Policy: An Historical Analysis. (2nd ed)
Ziring, Lawrence., Karachi. Oxford University Press, 1990.
6. Cheema., Pervez Pakistan’ s Defense Policy. London: McMillan, 1990.
7. Gillani, Ijaz Pakistan’s Foreign Policy: An International Law Perspective.
Hussain., London Progressive Pub., 1988.
8. Hyder, Sajjad., Foreign Policy of Pakistan: Reflections of an Ambassador.
Lahore: Progressive Pub, 1987.
9. Hussain Pakistan and the Changing Regional Scenario.
Mushahid., Lahore: Progressive Pub, 1988.
10. Khan Mohammad Friends Not Masters. Karachi, Oxford University Press, 1967.
11. Malik, Hafeez., Soviet – American Relations with Pakistan, Iran and
Afghanistan. London, McMillan, 1986.
12. Mujtaba, Rizvi., The Frontiers of Pakistan: Karachi, National Pub House, 1971.
13. Shahi, Agha., Pakistan’s Security and Foreign Policy. Lahore Progressive
Pakistan, China & America. Karachi, PIIA, 1980.
Bhutto’s Foreign Policy and the Contemporary problem of
Pakistan. London. Ej. Brill, 1974.
PAPER - VIII INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY 100 marks
Contents: 1. Fundamental concepts of International Economics.
2. The importance of Economic in International Relations.
3. The Emergence and growth of International Political Economy.
4. The International Economic System
5. Instruments of International Economics.
6. The Politics of International Trade.
7. The International Monetary System.
8. The Politics of Foreign Aid.
9. The process of Economic Development.
10. The Phenomenon of Dependency and its consequences.
11. The North-South Dialogue.
12. The emerging international economic order.
1. Adams, John., (ed) The Contemporary International Economy.
New York, St. Mortin’s 19
2. Ahmed, Syed The Politics of International Economic Relations.
Salahuddin., Karachi. Comprehensive Book Service, 1991.
3. Ansari, Jawed., The Political Economy of International Economic
Organization. Boulders: Lynre Reinnery, 1986.
4. Brandt, Willy., North-South: A programme for Survival.
Cambridge. MIT Press, (4th ed) 1980.
5. Blake, David M & The Politics of Global Economic Relations.
Walters, Robert H., Eaglewood Cliffs, N.J.Prentice-Hall, 1987.
6. Oppenheineer, Issues in International Economics.
Peter, (ed). London: Routledge, 1980.
7. Spero, Jean Edelman., The Politics of International Economic Relations.
(3rd ed) London Allen & University, 1990.
8. Stubbs, Richard, & Bill The Political Economy and the Changing Global Orders.
Geoggery, (ed) London: McMillan, 1994.
PAPER - I X STRATEGIC STUDIES 100 marks
Contents: i. The importance of Strategic Studies.
ii. Fundamental Strategic Concepts.
iii. Definition and Scope of Strategic Studies.
iv. Theories and Ideas of Important Strategists:
v) Contemporary Strategic Problems.
vi) Development of Military Technology since 1945 and its impact on
vii) War as a political institutions.
ix) Nuclear Strategy
x) Crisis Management
xi) Arms, Race, Arms Control and Disarmament.
xiii) Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia.
1. ------------------ The Defense Journal
2. Beafre, Indre., An Introduction to Strategic Studies.
London. Faber & Faber, 1967.
3. Buzan, Berry., An Introduction to Strategic Studies, Military Technology and
London: McMillan, 1987.
4. Clausewitz, K.V., On War.
N.J. Princeton University Press, 1976 ( Translated)
5. Kissinger,Henry A., Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy.
N.Y. Doubleday Anchor Books, 1983.
6. Knoor, Klaus (ed) Power, Strategy and Security.
Princeton University Press, 1983.
7. Schelling, Thomas The Strategy of Conflict:
Oxford University Press, 1963.
8. Wright, Quincy., A Study of War.
Chicago. University of Chicago, 1965 ,Paper back ed, 1983.
( OPTION-A) WEST ASIA, SINCE 1919 AND THE ARAB WORLD 100 marks
1. The peace settlement and its effects on Turkey.
2. Kemalist Revolution: Establishment of the Republic and Abolition of Khilafat:
Internal and External Politicians.
3. Turkey during and after World War-II
4. Democratic Regime, 1950-1960, its Internal and External Politics: Emphasis on Relations with the U.S.A., U.S.S.R and the Muslim World, Collective Security Arrangements including NATO and CENTO.
5. Coup d’état of 1960 and Aftermath; Government of Ismat Inonu.
6. Cyprus Problem
7. Present Political Set up and Foreign Policy of Turkey.
1- The rise of Nationalism; sea’ d Zaghlol and the Wafd Party. Anglo-Egyptian Relations from 1919-1939; The Egyptian treaty of 1936, Egypt during world war II.
2- Anglo-Egyptian Relations in the post-war period; Problem of Treaty Revision, Egypt’s Middle Eastern Policy; First Arab- Israel war and its effects.
3- The July revolution, Naguib’s Policy; settlement of the Sudan Sudan problem and Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1954; Pall of Naguib and suppression of Muslim brother-hood International reforms, The Suez crisis.
4- Naseer’s Foreign Policy sine Suez crisis, his relation with Arab states and the Afro-Asian Countries, Policy of neutralism.
5- United Arab republic and the Arab states; breakaway with Syria.
6- Anwar Sadat and the Camp David Agreement with Israel; Internal and External policies.
7- Post – Sadat Period
1. RAZA Shah and its reforms; foreign Relations.
2. Post world war II Problems; Relations with U.S.S.R. and U.S.A.
3. The rise and fall of Mussadaq and problem of Oil.
4. The 1954 Consortium : the Baghdad pact.
6. Relation with Pakistan and Turkey: E…
7. Fall of Iranian Monarchy; revolution in the Islamic republic of Iran.
8. Internal and External Policies. Iran/Iraq war and its impact.
D- THE ARAB WORLD
1. Arab nationalism,Nionism,. Peace Settlement of 1912
2. Pan Arabism, the Arab League.
3. The Palestine problem-1919 to the present.
4. Super-Power Rivalry in the Middle East.
5. Brief survey of Major Internal Policies Affecting the Region.
6. A.C.C & G.C.C.
7. Current Development in Gulf.
1. lenzoski,F. The Middle East in World Affairs , N.y. 19556.
2. Izedin, Najila, The Arab World, Chicago, 1956.
3. Hollingworth, Cr, The Arab and the West, London, 1952
4. Little, Tom, Egypt, New York, 1959.
5. Lewis, G.L Turkey, New York, 1956.
6. Hass,W.S, Iran, New York, 1946
7. Grosseclose, E. Introduction to Iran, New York, 1947.
8. Imamuddin, S.M. A Modern History of the Middle East & North Africa,
9. Procter, Haris(ed) Islam and International Relations, N.Y.
10. Macdonald,W. The League of Arab States, Princeton, 1965.
11. Seal, Prrisk, The Struggle of Syria, Oxford, 1964.
12. Overy, Peter. Modern Iran, New York. 1965.
13. Rivilin Benjamin, The Contemporary Middle East. New York, 1965.
& Joseph Szvilo
14. Hadded George. Revolutions and Military Rule in the Middle East
New York, 1965.
15. Lagueur, Walter., The Road to Jerusalem: The Origin of Arab Israel
Conflict. New York, 1968.
16. Hedyri, Sami., Bitter Harvest: Palestine Between 1914-1967.
New York, 1967.
17. Morre, John The Arab Israel Conflict. Princeton, 1977.
18. Lilienthal., The Zionist Connection. New York, 1978.
BOOKS OF REFERENCE:
1. R.I.I.A., The Middle East: Political and Economics Survey
(Latest ed) London.
2. R.I.I.A., Survey of International Affairs. (Relevant Chapters)
3. R.I.I.A., Documents of International Affairs (Relevant Chapters)
4. Fisher, Sydney ., The Middle East. London, 1959.
5. Hurewitz, J.C., Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East., Princeton,1956.
6. Mowat, R.C., Middle East Perspective. London, 1958
7. Lacouture, W.Z., The Middle East in Transition, New York, 1958.
8. Lacouture, G., Egypt in Transition., New York, 1958.
9. Naseer, Gamal The Philosophy of the Revolution. , Washington, 1958.
10. Lenczowski, G., Russia and the West in Iran., Ithaca, 1946.
PAPER- X Option-(B) SOUTH ASIA 100 marks
1. Post-Second World War. International System in South Asia.
2. Basic Cleavages between India and Pakistan.
3. Government and Politics in India.
4. India and the South Asian States (other than Pakistan)
5. Indian Foreign Policy since 1947
6. Review of the South Asia States, Politics & Problems ( Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka)
7. Formation of South Asian Regional Cooperation
8. South Asian States Attitude towards Nuclear Free Zone in the Region
9. Super Power Rivalry in the Indian Ocean and Response of the South Asian States.
1. Verma, and Misra (ed)., Foreign Policy in South Asia., New Delhi, 1966.
2. Rajan, M.S., India in World Affairs, 1954-56. New York, 1964.
3. Barndsh, W.J., India, Pakistan and Great Powers, New York 1972
4. Gupta, Sisir., India and Regional Integration in Asia, New York,
5. Harrison, Sclig S (ed)., India and the United States, New York, 1961.
6. Misra, K.P. (ed)., Studies in Indian Foreign Policy, Delhi, 1969.
7. Brecher, Michael., The New States Of Asia. London, 1968.
8. Ayub, Muhammad., India, Pakistan and Bangladesh: Search for a New
Relationship., New Delhi, 1974.
9. Ziring, Lawrence (ed) The Sub-continent in World Politics, India Neighbor
and the Great Power., Preager, 1982.
10. Choudhry, G.W., India, Pakistan and the Major Powers: Politics of a
Divided Sub-continent. New York, 1975.
PAPER-XI: ESSAY OPTION A. (FOR PRIVATE CANDIDATES 100 MARKS
THESIS WRITING (For Regular Students) 100 marks1
2. approaches to Research Methodology
a) Historical Approach
a) Selection of Topic
4. Techniques of Reporting .
a) References: Primary and Secondary Sources